Acute respiratory infections – symptoms, causes, types, treatment and prevention of acute respiratory infections

In today’s article we will discuss with you the issue of ARI – its causes, symptoms, types, treatment and prevention.

What is ARI?

ARD (acute respiratory disease) – a group of diseases of an infectious nature, whose characteristic feature is the infected person by airborne droplets.

The reason ARI is exposure to various viruses, bacteria, Mycoplasma and other infections, under the scope of which includes all the organs of breathing from the throat to the lungs.

The risk group includes children, the elderly and people who work in large groups – office workers, educators, teachers.

Acute respiratory infections have a seasonality – autumn-winter-spring. It is connected with insufficient intake of vitamins with trace elements and exposure to hypothermia. Wet feet in cold weather, or Hiking in the cold in light clothing in many cases end it is cold.

It is very important in the ARD not to waste time and to take effective treatment, because if you miss the time then, for example, to viral infection bacterial can join, and another, and protozoa. As a result of the aggregate effects on the body these microorganisms often develop complications, after which the person receives serious consequences.

It is important to note that the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections is often made in the case, if a person or group of people does not specify the exact nature of diseases of the respiratory system, or as a generalization when talking about the similarity of the clinical picture of respiratory disease in a particular locality.

Thus, after a careful examination in a medical facility, instead of ARI, a man can redefine the diagnosis on SARS, which is caused by a viral infection. This clarification helps the doctor to paint a more targeted treatment.

Causes of acute respiratory infections

Causes of Aspricin development ARI not so little, but the mechanism is the same and it is this: we on a regular basis surrounded by a range of pathological microorganisms, which carry various diseases. But an obstacle on their way, as well as uncontrolled development is the immune system, which performs protective functions of the body from aggressive external environment and its “inhabitants”. When the immune system is weakened, the infection entering the human body begins to uncontrollably proliferate and secrete the products of the activity, which in fact are toxic, so – toxic to internal organs.

Let’s consider the main factors that cause weakening of the immune system:

  • hypothermia;
  • a deficiency in the body necessary for normal functioning of vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin C (ascorbic acid);
  • stress, mental strain;
  • unfavorable ecological situation in the places of frequent stay – fumes, dust, fungi on the walls, etc.;
  • the presence in the body goes untreated chronic diseases.

Now you know what is the relationship between seasonality and acute respiratory diseases. In many cases, if this information is to be used as preventive measures, the incidence of serious acute infections is minimized. All preventive measures are described in the end of the article, and we will continue to consider other causes of ARI.

Among themselves as causative agents of acute respiratory infections, most often you can meet:

  1. Viruses: adenoviruses, influenza viruses and parainfluenza viruses, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinoviruses, enteroviruses etc.;
  2. Bacteria: Haemophilus coli, Legionella, meningococcus, Mycoplasma, pneumococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci, Streptococcus, chlamydia.

Secondary factors that increase the risk of developing acute respiratory infections, are:

  • allergens;
  • dry air in the living room;
  • disregard for the rules of personal hygiene.

The symptoms of cold

After infection in the human respiratory tract, as well as the lack of adequate response to infection the body’s immune system, in humans, there are the first signs of a cold. It should be noted that the incubation period (from infection to first symptoms) is 1 to 3 days, although there are some strains of flu in which a person falls ill within a few hours. Basically, the beginning of acute respiratory disease accompanied by discomfort in the nose (sneezing, stuffy nose, clear mucus from the nasal cavity) and throat (cough, sore throat). After some time, the nasal discharge becomes thicker and acquires a yellowish-greenish tint. With a slight infection of temperature in acute respiratory disease may be absent, in other cases it rises up to 39 °C and above, starts fever, headache.

The sooner You take appropriate measures for the treatment of ARI, the less the likelihood that the disease will enter a phase of complications, provoking the development of more serious diseases, such as bronchitis, tracheitis, neuritis and others.

So, highlight common clinical manifestations of ARI:

  • General malaise;
  • Pain in muscles and joints;
  • Runny nose (rhinitis);
  • Sore throat, its redness and sore;
  • Cough;
  • Osiplosti and hoarseness;
  • Headache, fever;
  • Fever, chills;
  • Redness of the eyes, symptoms of conjunctivitis;
  • Skin rash, pale skin;
  • Lack of appetite, nausea;
  • Anemia;
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes, liver, in rare cases, the spleen.

Complications ARI

If acute respiratory disease do not need to give “the answer”, it can lead to the development of various more serious conditions:

  • Sinusitis (runny nose joined by sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, etmoidit and sphenoidal);
  • Otitis;
  • Meningitis;
  • Tracheitis;
  • Bronchitis;
  • Pneumonia (inflammation of lungs);
  • Empyema;
  • Neuritis;
  • Radikulonevrit;
  • Myocarditis;
  • Viral encephalitis;
  • Damage to the liver.

The types of OCR

Acute respiratory infections are classified as follows.

Type of pathogen:

  • ARVI (acute respiratory viral infection) – diseases caused by viruses (adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, etc.);
  • Acute respiratory disease caused by bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, etc.);
  • Acute respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma.

Diagnosis of acute respiratory infections

Diagnosis of acute respiratory infections includes the following methods of examination:

  • History;
  • To study the clinical picture of the disease;
  • General analysis of blood;
  • The cultures from the nasopharynx;
  • Serological diagnostics.
  • Extras can be assigned:
  • Ultrasound of internal organs;
  • Chest x-ray.

Treatment for cold

Treatment Izlechenie OCR largely depends on the type of causative agent of the disease. For example, acute respiratory infections of viral etiology, i.e. in the case of SARS – prescribed antiviral and immunostimulatory therapy, acute respiratory infections of bacterial etiology, antibiotic therapy is used.

General measures treatment of acute respiratory diseases:

1. Compliance with the bed and polupostelny mode. It is necessary to marzenia forces and energy the body needs to fight infection. In addition, with minimal contact with the patient’s external the world around them, minimizing the accession of secondary infection, which could aggravate the clinical picture of the disease and its consequences.

2. You must drink plenty of water – 3-4 liters a day. This is very important, because the harmful bacteria emit their waste products, which are for the body – toxins. The more the patient drinks the liquid, the faster it from the body toxins. In addition, when the patient temperature rises in this time the body is burnt infection, which is introduced from the body together with the liquid. It is especially necessary to focus on the consumption of the drink enriched with vitamin C because it strengthens the immune system. For this purpose the perfect tea with raspberry and lemon, broth hips, fruit drinks and juices of cranberry, cranberries and oranges. Also, anti-virus effective alkali, therefore can additionally drink alkaline mineral water.

3. Diet. During the body’s fight against infection it is important not to perezagruzite his food, he needs a lot of effort. Poet, during acute respiratory diseases, it is important to exclude sweet, fat, acute, salty, smoked and canned food. Also, there should be no Smoking, alcohol, chips, crackers and other harmful foods. Do the same focus in the diet to easily digestible foods rich in vitamins and trace elements.

4. Nasal rinses. This is due to the fact that priority, in the nasopharynx accumulates infection that then spreads to the entire body. In addition, viruses and bacteria have the ability to settle in the nose, and already them to continue to poison your body. Therefore, rinsing is removed from the body osadchey infection.

5. Gargling. Gargle need for the same purposes as the nose to prevent the accumulation of infection in the throat. Also rinse has a positive effect in cough, because this symptom irritates the mucosa, causing as a result of pain in the throat and further complications of the disease. As a means for gargling effectively proven — soda-salt solution and various herbal teas (chamomile, calendula, sage).

6. Inhalation. This procedure seeks to reduce pain in the throat, decrease in cough reflexes and normalization of the breath in the cold. For the procedure of inhalation is great, such a device, such as a nebulizer. As a means for inhalation have proven themselves decoctions of chamomile, mint, calendula and other herbs.

7. Ventilate the room with the patient, and in his profuse sweating, change underwear and bed linen.

Important! Low temperature of 38 °C, the patient does not knock. This is due to the fact that the increase in temperature is the immune system’s response to infection body infection. When the body temperature rises, infection under the influence of heat is destroyed. If the OCR temperature exceeds 39 °C (adults) and 38 °C (in children), or it lasts more than 5 days, then use fever-reducing medicines.

Cough. Initially the cough is dry in the ARD form, which greatly irritated the mucosa and increased pain in the throat. Therefore, in the beginning used antitussives for the transfer of a cough from the dry form in the wet, the so-called productive form. For this purpose “Alteyka”, “Codelac”, “Pour”. Further, if the sputum is too thick and not excreted from the body by coughing, apply the means for its thinning – the “Ascoril”, “ACC” (ACC). For removing phlegm from the respiratory tract can be applied — “Tocsin”, the plantain syrup.

Headache. You can accept “keeping pace” or “Aspirin” (contraindicated in children).

Insomnia. Used sedatives: “Barbamyl”, “Luminal”.

Acute respiratory infections of viral etiology (SARS). Apply antiviral drugs: “Arbidol”, “Amiksin”, “Tsikloferon”, “Remantadin”.

Acute respiratory infections of bacterial nature. Used antibiotics of wide spectrum of action: penicillins, cephalosporins.

Acute infections of chlamydia and Mycoplasma infection: “Macroben”, “Rulid”.

Vitamins. To strengthen the body and stimulate the immune system can also be vitamin complexes, with a focus on vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

The prognosis for the treatment of acute respiratory disease – positive. After recovery, the body produces immunity to the infection, which the person has been ill. However, due to the fact that many infections tend to mutate from year to year, an increasing number of people sick with acute respiratory diseases repeatedly.

If all else fails, ask God for help in the fight against the disease, because there are situations where neither the doctors nor professors can do nothing, but the Lord when It was accessed, in His mercy, often does things that neither our eyes have not seen nor ears have not heard. Still, He is our Creator!

Prevention of acute respiratory infections

Prevention of acute respiratory infections includes the following recommendations:

  • prevent hypothermia;
  • do not leave goes untreated chronic diseases;
  • keep an active lifestyle;
  • avoid stressful situations, as emotional stress weaken the immune system;
  • try to eat food enriched with vitamins and trace elements as well as products that have antibacterial properties (onion, garlic);
  • autumn-winter-spring period additionally take vitamin complexes;
  • at announcement of the epidemic of ORZ try to wear a protective mask and avoid places with large concentrations of people;
  • observe rules of personal hygiene;
  • if you live in the house sick sh will separate for his private use Cutlery (plate, Cup, spoon), as well as bed linen and towels;
  • give up Smoking;
  • after being outside, wash the nasal cavity, gargle.

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