How to treat flu in rabinkarp belongs to the group of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and is the most formidable representative. Infection of susceptible people of any age, but certainly more sensitive children. The immune system in babies is imperfect. For this reason, flu in children can be quite severe and with the development of various complications.
Influenza is an acute infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus from the family of orthomyxoviruses. There are the following types of flu:
- Type A;
- Type In;
- Type S.
The flu is Most dangerous in the epidemic is the influenza virus of the first type. On its surface are two proteins-antigens — hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Hemagglutinin provides the attachment of the virus to target cells and neuraminidase destroys the membrane of the cells, allowing the virus without obstacles penetrates into the body. It is believed that intoxication is determined by the activity of the hemagglutinin, but the oppression of the immune system occurs under the action of neuraminidase. Each of these antigens has its own subtypes. Thus, there are 12 subtypes of hemagglutinin, referred to as H1, H2, H3, etc., and 9 subtypes of neuraminidase antigen N1, N2, N3, etc. Combination of those or other types of antigens determines the type of influenza. So, H1N1 is called swine flu, H5N1 bird. By and large the clinical picture of influenza caused by different virus, same. Swine flu in children is typical of influenza infection. What types of flu will be prevalent in the Northern hemisphere in 2015-2016, you can read the article Flu: symptoms, treatment, complications and prevention.
Transmission mechanism — airborne. A sick person, sneezing and coughing, with saliva and sputum excrete virus. So, in two to three metres a healthy person can get sick with the flu. The virus attaches to the epithelium of the nasal mucosa, larynx. From there enters the bloodstream and then spreads throughout the body. The incubation period is short, from several hours to three days. An average of one to two days. According to the severity of influenza is isolated:
FLU SYMPTOMS OF MODERATE SEVERITY
To determine clinical picture of the sick child, the flu, or another SARS in some cases it is quite difficult. Indeed, for diseases from the group of acute respiratory infections have similar symptoms. But for influenza (swine or any other) characteristic feature is a sudden onset disease. Just a few hours ago the baby was very active, and now has become lethargic, looks unwell. Influenza is characteristic of a sudden rise of temperature to numbers 38-40 degrees, which is held at such a high level for two to three days. Child complains of pressure pain in the eyes, headache, body aches. Sick child becomes restless, whiny. 847380042 (1) On the second day the child begins to complain of soreness in the throat, dry cough. You may experience nasal congestion due to mucosal edema, mucous and then scanty, transparent allocation from a nose. But abundant a runny nose for flu uncharacteristic, this symptom may mislead the doctor at the thought of another infection is rhinovirus. Observed abnormalities in the cardiovascular system: fluctuations in blood pressure and increased heart rate. Abdominal pain, and vomiting, diarrhea is a characteristic symptoms of swine flu in a child. The flu virus provokes the fragility of blood vessels, so the baby can be observed petechial hemorrhages on the body, as well as nosebleeds. On the background of lowering the temperature of the child’s condition is gradually improving. But for 4-7 days may be a wet cough. Within one month after the illness the child may experience reduced activity, fatigue. This time should be limited to active exercise.
SYMPTOMS IN SEVERE
The clinical picture symptoms of intoxication. Due to the high temperature of the baby may experience delusions, hallucinations, hemorrhagic phenomena (bleeding from the nose, gums, subcutaneous hemorrhage). The temperature quickly reaches 39-40 degrees and long-term retention at a high level. Young children develop neurotoxicity, manifested:
- Nausea, vomiting;
- Symptoms of meningism;
In severe infections often join various complications, such as hemorrhagic pulmonary edema. The most dangerous for children hypertoxic form of the disease, which is characterized by extremely severe course and rapid development of such a formidable state, as an infectious-toxic shock. Often in this form of the disease is the catarrhal symptoms of the flu, the child did not even have time to form (stuffy nose, cough). Hypertoxic form of flu can lead to death due to pulmonary edema or acute heart failure. Death may occur already after only a few hours after the appearance of the first symptoms.
COMPLICATIONS OF THE DISEASE
Complications of influenza can be divided into two groups:
- Primary — caused by the influenza virus;
- Secondary — caused by secondary infection.
Primary oslojneniya threatening complication of this group is considered to be hemorrhagic pulmonary edema that occurs in the first days of the disease and can lead to death. On the background of pronounced toxicity appear shortness of breath, sputum with blood, bluish skin, increased heart rate. Due to severe respiratory failure develops death. Children also may experience a false croup, which is caused by swelling of the vocal cords and spasm of the muscles of the larynx. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of asthma attacks more often at night. The attack is accompanied by rapid heart rate, anxiety of the child. Progressive edema of the larynx leads to the fact that air is not entering the lungs and the baby starts to choke. To the action of the virus of influenza is particularly sensitive nervous system. May develop these complications:
- Swelling and herniation of brain into foramen Magnum;
- Bleeding in the brain with the development of paralysis;
- The Guillain-Barre Syndrome;
- Neuralgia, polyneuritis;
- The Reye’s Syndrome.
Please note: Reye’s syndrome develops on the background of treatment of influenza with aspirin. You should avoid this drug. The syndrome is characterized by severe brain damage and liver. In the delayed term (after 1-2 months) may develop a complication such as glomerulonephritis. This disease is manifested by decrease in urine output, edema, increase in blood pressure. Also it can damage the heart with myocarditis or endocarditis.
In most cases, the flu ends in complete recovery of the child. The danger is not to be expected from the flu, but rather from complications. Secondary complications occur when the flu joins secondary infection (usually bacterial), or aktiviziruyutsya chronic infections. The most common and dangerous complication of influenza is bacterial pneumonia. The presence of a disease, will show an increase in body temperature more than 38 degrees after the fifth day of illness, severe weakness, cough with purulent sputum. Child during a coughing fit, hands pressing on the chest, because pain in this area of the body. Another category of secondary complications in influenza are diseases of ENT-organs. Most often develop diseases such as:
Uncomplicated influenza does not require active measures. It is sufficient to provide the child with bed rest. Treatment of influenza in children in the home should be carried out in compliance with health recommendations. A child’s room should be aired out several times a day, to spend damp cleaning. Children during illness loss of appetite. We should not force a child to eat by force. To prefer light meals, such as low-fat chicken soup, eggs, and dairy products. The most important rule — drink plenty of liquids. It can be fruit drinks, natural juices, compotes. These drinks not only contribute to the removal of the virus, but also saturate the body of the child vitamins and minerals. Of symptomatic treatment used antipyretic drugs, nasal sprays, cough lozenges, expectorants less. We should also talk about the use of antipyretics. From the variety of NSAIDs to children recommends taking only two medications: ibuprofen and paracetamol. It is known that the increase in temperature is a protective reaction of the organism. Thus the body fights infection and bring down the 38-degree temperature is not necessary. But there are certain situations where lowering the temperature is not only possible, but necessary. Antipyretic drugs should be administered at:
- Body temperature over 39 degrees;
- Temperature over 38 degrees, if in history the child has convulsions;
- Temperature over 38.5 degrees in the presence of chronic diseases;
- A temperature of over 38 degrees in infants.
Influenza is the only infection from the group of acute respiratory infections, against which there is etiotropic treatment. Drugs that are effective against influenza are divided into two groups:
- Inhibitors of receptors of the M2 — rimantadine;
- Neuraminidase inhibitors — Tamiflu, zanamivir.