Parainfluenza – an acute infectious disease that is included in the group of acute respiratory viral infections, or SARS. In the human body the causative agent of this disease enters through the nose, but settles mainly on the mucosa of the larynx, causing inflammation. Sick with parainfluenza adults and children, with the highest incidence observed in autumn and spring.
For adults and adolescents with normal immune systems, this infection is a big risk is not, but in young children as a result of inflammation of the larynx (laryngitis) may develop serious complications – croup (narrowing of the larynx). In addition, immunocompromised patients and people who “perejivayut” the disease is in the legs, infection quite often spreads to the lower respiratory tract and cause bronchitis and pneumonia.
Viruses that cause the development parainfluenza, belong to the genus of paramyxoviruses. There are 5 types, however, are dangerous to humans are only three (1, 2 and 3). That is getting re-parainfluenza (the disease is caused by another type of agent).The causative agent of parainfluenza
Parainfluenza infection occurs mainly by airborne droplets. Do not forget about the possibility of infection through dirty hands. Viruses may persist for several hours on hands and surfaces that touched a sick man with fingers soiled by mucus from the nasopharynx.
HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUSES: SYMPTOMS
Parainfluenza: a disease cinemambiente 1-7 days after infection. The first symptoms of parainfluenza are generally associated with the defeat of the virus of the larynx. The patients there:
- Hoarseness (in some people, the voice disappears altogether).
- Feeling of dryness, tickling, sore throat.
- Paroxysmal dry cough. A few days after the onset of the disease the cough becomes wet, which may not stop for several weeks.
In addition, the patients body temperature rises to 38-38, 5 degrees. She kept at this level for 2-3 days. Also for parainfluenza characteristic signs of intoxication: fatigue, body aches, headache, lack of appetite.
PARAINFLUENZA IN CHILDREN
In children parainfluenza usually occurs in adults what is heavier: almost always with a high fever, very severe paroxysmal cough, even provoking vomiting. But the most unpleasant consequence of parainfluenza infection in young children (4-5 years old) can become croup – laryngeal stenosis, which leads to respiratory failure. Its symptoms:
- Shortness rapid breathing (when breathing is heard whistling).
- The barking cough.
- Bluish color of the skin.
- Incessant salivation.
- Picture parainfluenza
Croup usually occurs in the night, which is associated with the accumulation and drying in the region of the vocal cords of a child of large amounts of mucus, and edema of the larynx. Taking into account such peculiarities of laryngitis, children with this disease need to be put to sleep in a room with cool and definitely damp air (the optimum temperature is 18 degrees, and the humidity is 50%). In addition, it is important to prevent temperature rise of the body of a child up to 38 degrees and more, as hyperthermia also contributes to drying the airway mucous secretions.
The main methods of diagnosis of parainfluenza is clinical, including assessing clinical picture of the disease and the data of examination of the patient by the doctor. Detection of parainfluenza virus by laboratory diagnosis (serological tests, PCR, ELISA) is an expensive study, which is conducted only in the presence of certain indications (with the development of complications, protracted course of the disease, etc.).
Preparations of parainfluenza, acting precisely on the virus is not yet created, so etiotropic treatment for this disease is usually not carried out. In the case of severe disease possible to use the following medicines with antiviral activity shirokopolosnoi:
- The doctor (isoprinosine).
In addition, patients necessarily prescribe drugs to eliminate the symptoms of the disease:
- Fever-reducing medications – acetaminophen, ibuprofen.
- Antitussives (only for dry unproductive cough).
- Expectorants and mucolytic drugs to alleviate wet cough.
- Anti-inflammatory medicines, which act on the respiratory system (for example fenspiride).
With the development of complications (accession bacterial flora), the doctor may prescribe the patient antibiotics.
As for the regime, as with other SARS, parainfluenza, when doctors recommend the first days of illness must “sit” at home. At this time, it is important to drink more fluids and to comply with voice rest, then there is less to talk, so as not to strain the inflamed larynx and vocal cords.
Specific prevention of parainfluenza does not exist, therefore the key measures must be aimed at strengthening immunity and prevention of infection through frequent hand washing, avoidance of crowded places during the period of high incidence of acute respiratory infections.