The term “laryngitis” to denote inflammation of the mucous membranes of the larynx that may develop under the influence of various predisposing factors on the background of other diseases. Laryngitis – a disease that is diagnosed in both adults and children. For this disease depends on a number of conditions (age, resistance of the organism, adequacy of therapy, etc.).
According to generally accepted classification, all laryngitis are divided into:
- acute (including allergic and infectious);
- chronic (catarrhal types, laryngitis with severe hypertrophic or atrophic processes).
There are also secondary diphtheria, tuberculous and syphilitic laryngitis.
Laryngitis can develop due to enhanced growth and reproduction of normal microflora on the background of weakening of protective forces of an organism. Factors that reduce resistance can be:
- overexertion of the vocal cords;
- breathing through the mouth;
- continuous inhalation of polluted air;
- a tendency to alcoholism.
In some cases, to acute laryngitis causes allergies to food or insect bites. An allergic reaction often causes considerable swelling of the larynx and narrowing of its lumen, which not only violates the breath, but may cause it to stop.
Please note: Allergic laryngitis often affects younger age group.
The disease is provoked nasal inflammation arising on a background of influenza, SARS, adenovirus infections, scarlet fever, whooping cough and measles. Factors predisposing to the development of chronic laryngitis:
- recurrent acute laryngitis;
- inadequate therapy of acute forms;
- occupational hazards (inhalation of polluted air);
- chronic rhinitis;
- inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis);
- inflammation of the pharynx (pharyngitis);
- stagnation in the upper respiratory tract (on the background of pathologies of the heart and lungs);
- metabolism of carbohydrates;
Important: laryngitis in children is often diagnosed after repairs in the apartment or indoor installation of new furniture. Many paint materials provoke irritation and inflammation of the soft tissues of the larynx. Acute and chronic laryngitis may also result from gastroesophageal reflux, i.e. systematic reflux of acid stomach contents into the esophagus and larynx, and aspiration of small foreign bodies.
Predisposing factors are constant foci of infection for diseases of the oral cavity.
Most often, the acute form of laryngitis manifested by the following features:
- dryness in the mouth;
- a feeling of rawness or “scratching” in the throat;
- considerable hoarseness (often its loss);
- cough (at the initial stage of a dry cough, and then – with phlegm);
- a low-grade fever — a slight fever (often, the temperature is generally not increased).
Important: For the acute form is characterized by deterioration of General condition and presence of signs of General intoxication.
In children (mostly from 2 to 5 years) may be acute subglottic laryngitis, also known as “false croup”. When it becomes inflamed areas of the mucous membrane below the vocal cords. This form is characterized by acute onset. Initial symptoms are wheezing and a barking cough (usually at night).
When false croup difficult breathing, increasing shortness of breath. Respiratory failure when false croup is caused by swelling of the mucosa of the plots (they take the form of rollers, narrowing the lumen of the larynx). The lack of oxygen during a seizure manifested by blue discoloration of lips and nails. The duration of an acute attack can range from 2-3 to more than 30 minutes, and then in most cases the breathing comes back to normal.
The morning after the night of the attack the child feels almost normal, can only be a change of voice (osiplosti). If not promptly take the appropriate therapeutic measures, the episodes may be repeated at regular intervals of time (from 2-3 days to 1-2 weeks). With early and adequate ongoing treatment the prognosis for the acute form of laryngitis is usually good.
The disease is within one to two weeks. It does not exclude a chronic process. Laryngitis in children is more severe in connection with the imperfection of the immune system.
SIGNS OF CHRONIC LARYNGITIS
Typical, often recurring symptoms of chronic forms:
- husky voice;
- severe sore throat;
- swelling and hyperemia of the mucosa.
The diagnosis is based on characteristic clinical presentation, patient’s complaints and data of physical examination. In some cases, to clarify needed research tools with the use of the laryngoscope.
During the examination, the doctor draws attention to marked redness of the mucous membranes, which is exacerbated the closer to the vocal cords. There may also be petechial hemorrhages (characterized by a protracted and complicated influenza). Chronic catarrhal laryngitis manifests itself by extensive reddening and thickening of the walls of the mucosa of the larynx. The vocal cords are closed at the same not completely, they are often seen vescovato a lot of mucus.
For the hypertrophic form is characterized by not only swollen mucosa, but also the expansion of the submucosal layer.
In atrophic laryngitis mucous membranes are dry, and thinned. This is due to the loss of a significant portion of the glands that produce mucus. The remaining glands produce a viscous secretion, which quickly dries, forming crusts.
When conducting a General analysis of peripheral blood revealed leukocytosis and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In adults, laryngitis must be differentiated from erythematous lesions due to syphilis, tuberculosis in the initial stage, erysipelas and tumors of the larynx (benign or cancerous). 9227-img_1